AIDS (HIV) & AIDS Wasting

"The profile of cannabinoid drug effects suggest that they are promising for treating wasting syndrome in AIDS patients. Nausea, appetite loss, pain, and anxiety are all afflictions of wasting, and all can be mitigated by marijuana. Although some medications are more effective than marijuana for these problems, they are not equally effective in all patients. A rapid-onset (that is, acting within minutes) delivery system should be developed and tested in such patients. Smoking marijuana is not recommended. The long-term harm caused by smoking marijuana makes it a poor drug delivery system, particularly for patients with chronic illnesses." Mar. 1999 - Institute of Medicine "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base" (988 KB)

Alzheimer's Disease

"In contrast to previous studies aimed at utilizing cannabinoids in Alzheimer's disease therapy, our results provide a mechanism whereby the THC molecule can directly impact Alzheimer's disease pathology... It is noteworthy that THC is a considerably more effective inhibitor... than the approved drugs for Alzheimer's disease treatment, donepezil and tacrine, which reduced [protein deposits in the brain] by only 22% and 7%, respectively, at twice the concentration used in our studies... THC and its analogues may provide an improved therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease [by] simultaneously treating both the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease." Aug. 9, 2006 - Lisa Eubanks, PhD A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology (143 KB)

Arthritis

"Studies from chronic cannabis smokers have provided much of the evidence for immunomodulatory [modifying or regulating the immune system] effects of cannabis in humans... Cannabinoids can modulate both the function and secretion of cytokines [regulatory proteins] from immune cells. Therefore, cannabinoids may be considered for treatment of inflammatory disease." Sep. 2005 - Journal of Neuroimmunology

Chemotherapy Related Nausea

"The anti-emetic properties of cannabis have been studied in humans more widely than any other indication. Nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy was felt to be one of the best supported therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids by the British Medical Association in their review of 23 studies, and was also supported by the American Institute of Medicine. This indication for cannabis has become common knowledge among patients, was the subject of a popular book, and has received some endorsement amongst American oncologists in a survey study. A large body of knowledge has now been amassed in this context as a result of state-sponsored studies in the USA in cancer chemotherapy. Pooling available data in some 768 patients, oral THC provided 76-88% relief of nausea and vomiting, while smoked cannabis figures supported 70-100% relief in the various surveys." Jan. 2004 - GW Pharmaceuticals

Crohn's / Gastrointestinal Disorders

"In the present preliminary prospective study, we have found that treatment with inhaled cannabis improves quality of life in patients with long-standing CD [Crohn's disease] and UC [ulcerative colitis]. Treatment was also shown to cause a statistically significant rise in patients’ weight after 3 months of treatment, and improvement in clinical disease activity index in patients with CD… Moreover, the data demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in almost all aspects of patients' daily life. After 3 months' treatment with inhaled cannabis, patients stated an improvement in their health status, their ability to perform daily activities and their ability to maintain social life. Patients reported a statistically significant physical pain reduction during treatment, as well as improvement in mental distress… None of our patients complained of any side effect that disturbed their working ability. In fact, as was shown in the results, there was a statistically significant improvement in patients' ability to work after treatment." Jan. 2012 Digestion Article - Adi Lahat, MD

Epilepsy / Seizures

"Recently, there have been some open-labeled studies in the U.S. of Epidiolex (a drug derived from cannabidiol or CBD), which is produced by a pharmaceutical company (GW Pharmaceuticals). Epidiolex is a purified, 99% oil-based extract of CBD that is produced to give known and consistent amounts in each dose. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given some epilepsy centers permission to use this drug as "compassionate use" for a limited number of people at each center. Such studies are ongoing for difficult epilepsies such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (in children and adults) and Dravet syndrome in children. Results from 213 people who received Epidiolex (99% CBD) in an open label study (without a placebo control) were presented at the American Academy of Neurology, April 22, 2015 in Washington DC. Data from 137 people who completed 12 weeks or more on the drug were used to look at how helpful or effective the drug was. People who received the Epidiolex ranged from 2 to 26 years old with an average age of 11. All had epilepsy that did not respond to currently available treatments - 25 or 18% had Dravet Syndrome (DS) and 22 or 16% had Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). Seizures decreased by an average of 54% in 137 people who completed 12 weeks on Epidiolex. Patients who had DS responded more positively with a 63% decrease in seizures over 3 months. This improvement in seizures lasted through 24 weeks on the Epidiolex, more often for people with DS than without DS. In 27 patients with atonic seizures (which are commonly seen in people with LGS as well as other types of epilepsy), the atonic seizures decreased by 66.7% on average. The responder rate (the number of people whose seizures decreased by at least 50%) was also slightly better in patients with DS (about 55% at 3 months) as compared to patients without DS (50%). People who were also taking the anti-seizure medication Clobazam (Onfi) seemed to respond more favorably to the Epidiolex with a greater improvement in convulsive seizures than in patients who were not taking Clobazam. The authors suggested that an interaction between Clobazam and Epidiolex may play a part in the differences seen." http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/treating-seizures-and-epilepsy/other-treatment-approaches/medical-marijuana-and-epilepsy April 22, 2015 American Academy of Neurology"

Glaucoma

"Medical marijuana's primary benefit for glaucoma patients is its effect on intraocular pressure (IOP). In one study, more than 80% of patients who smoked marijuana using an ice-cooled water pipe experienced a reduction in IOP of 16-45%. Another study used cannabinoids contained in medicinal marijuana, and found a significant drop in IOP in patients who took THC and cannabidiol. A third clinical trial also found that medical marijuana reduces intraocular pressure, as well as blood pressure overall... If you're interested in trying medical marijuana for your glaucoma, you're in very good company. Glaucoma is among the most common medical conditions treated with medicinal marijuana. There is no cure for glaucoma, but with your ophthalmologist's guidance, you can combine medical marijuana with traditional glaucoma drugs to create an effective treatment plan to delay or avoid surgical intervention." Apr. 3, 2014 - Medicine in Bloom

Hepatitis C

"Research suggests that cannabis has the potential of offering therapeutic benefits to patients with HCV and other liver diseases (Mallat, et al., 2011). The two major cannabinoids found in cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) bind with or influence the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) of the endocannabinoid system within the body. CB2 receptor activation has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and beneficial effects on alcoholic fatty liver, hepatic inflammation, liver injury, regeneration and fibrosis. A research review determined that the cannabinoids found within cannabis look to tame aspects of chronic liver disease (Zamora-Valdes, et al., 2005). One study found that cannabinoids’ anti-inflammatory properties effectively reduce inflammation of a damaged liver and researchers therefore suggested that cannabis could be developed as a potential drug for hepatitis (Lavon, et al., 2003)." September 28, 2015 http://www.medicalmarijuanainc.com/hepatitis-c-medical-maijuana-research/

Migranes

"Not only are there thousands of migraine patients who benefit from cannabis, but cannabis has been cited by such historical medical luminaries as Sir William Osler, M.D. (considered the father of modern medicine) and Dr. Morris Fishbein (long-time editor of JAMA) as the best treatment for migraines (back in the days before the Congress ignored the AMA and over the AMA’s objection, passed the Marijuana Tax Act)." Feb. 3, 2005 edition of Los Angeles City Beat, David L. Bearman, MD

Multiple Sclerosis / Muscle Spasms

"Many MS patients report that cannabis has a startling and profound effect on muscle spasms, tremors, balance, bladder control, speech and eyesight. Many wheel-chair-bound patients report that they can walk unaided when they have smoked cannabis Numerous case studies, surveys and double-blind studies have reported improvement in patients treated with cannabinoids for symptoms including spasticity... Cannabinoids have been shown in animal models to measurably lessen MS symptoms and may also halt the progression of the disease." Dec. 20, 2005 - Americans for Safe Access (ASA)

Chronic Pain

"[R]esearch further documents the safety and efficacy of medicinal cannabis for chronic pain. Cannabis has no known lethal dose, minimal drug interactions, is easily dosed via orally ingestion, vaporization, or topical absorption, thereby avoiding the potential risks associated with smoking completely... Natural cannabis contains 5-15% THC but also includes multiple other therapeutic cannabinoids, all working in concert to produce analgesia..." May 2013 issue of Pain Medicine - Gregory T. Carter, MD

Depression, Bipolar Disorders, Anxiety, and Similar Mood Disorders

"Those who consume marijuana occasionally or even daily have lower levels of depressive symptoms than those who have never tried marijuana. Specifically, weekly users had less depressed mood, more positive affect, and fewer somatic complaints than non-users. Daily users reported less depressed mood and more positive affect than non-users... Our results add to the growing body of literature on depression and marijuana and are generally consistent with a number of studies that have failed to confirm a relationship between the two after controlling for relevant variables... The potential for medical conditions to contribute to spurious links between marijuana and greater depression requires further investigation." Apr. 2006 State University of New York at Albany study- Thomas F. Denson, PhD

Tourette Syndrome

"Research has shown that cannabis can be effective in suppressing tics and also in the treatment of the syndrome’s associated behavioral problems (Muller-Vahl, 2013). One study measuring the effects of a single cannabis treatment on adult Tourette’s syndrome patients found a significant improvement of tics and obsessive-compulsive behavior compared to placebo (Muller-Vahl, et al., 2002). Demonstrating cannabis potential longer-term benefits, another study discovered a significant difference in the reduction of tics compared to placebo in Tourette’s patients after six weeks of cannabis administration (Muller-Vahl, et al., 2003). Another study, also involving six-weeks of cannabis treatments, reported a reduction tics in patients with Tourette’s with no serious adverse effects or impairment on neuropsychological performance (Muller-Vahl, 2003). Tourette syndrome patients being treated with cannabis have shown to experience no impairments in verbal and visual memory, reaction time, intelligence, sustained attention, divided attention, vigilance or mood compared to placebo treatment (Muller-Vahl, et al., 2002). Therefore, regular cannabis use to manage the symptoms associated with Tourette’s appears to have no acute or long-term cognitive effects (Muller-Vahl, et al., 2003)." September 30, 2015 - http://www.medicalmarijuanainc.com/tourette-syndrome-medical-marijuana-research/

"There are at least two active chemicals in marijuana that researchers think have medicinal applications. Those are cannabidiol (CBD) - which seems to impact the brain without a high- and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) - which has pain relieving (and other) properties."
Reference Article: Business Insider; April 20, 2014
http://www.businessinsider.com/health-benefits-of-medical-marijuana-2014-4

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